1-Panel Urine Test:
BUP

Item: DBU-114

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Panel Target Compound Cutoff Level
BUP Buprenorphine 10 ng/mL
BUP Panel: Specifications

Summary - BUP Drug Test Panel

  • Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid, with the mixed properties of both an opioid partial agonist and an opioid antagonist. As an analgesic, buprenorphine might be prescribed for treating pain, yet is best known for its role in treating opioid use disorder (OUD) during medication-assisted therapy (MAT). This approach involves replacing the use of shorter acting and highly addictive opioids, such as heroin or oxycodone, with controlled and medically-supervised dosing of a longer acting, less addictive, and less euphoric opioid, typically buprenorphine or methadone[1] By avoiding the persistent cravings and roller-coaster effects associated with short-acting opioid use, and the debilitating withdrawal symptoms associated with cold-turkey abstinence, MAT provides an opportunity for the patient to reach a level of stability. From that space, patient and clinician may choose to continue with opioid maintenance treatment or pursue withdrawal management[1] [2] With any approach to treating opioid use disorder, concurrent psychosocial treatment is viewed as an essential cornerstone. [2]

  • Buprenorphine is a prime target for diversion, illicit use, and misuse. For individuals with no physical dependence on opioids (opioid naive), buprenorphine produces euphoric effects and might be used as a recreational drug[3] For users with physical dependence on opioids, the euphoric effects are far less apparent; so buprenorphine is unlikely to be their first drug of choice. However, when the opioid addicted have difficulty procuring their preferred opioid product, diverted buprenorphine often serves as the stand-in. [4]

  • Buprenorphine is commonly found in the form of oral film strips and tablets. When oral buprenorphine is taken sublingually or buccally as indicated, bioavailability is approximately 30%, [5] compared to 100% when used intravenously. [6] As a result, many buprenorphine users turn to injecting their supply. In an effort to discourage misuse by injection, drugmakers have combined buprenorphine with the opioid antagonist naloxone in the following products: Suboxone, Bunavail, Zubsolv, and generic tablets. If such buprenorphine/naloxone coformulations are injected by individuals physically dependent on opioids, naloxone's antagonistic effects are deployed, blocking the opioid effects of the buprenorphine and producing unwanted withdrawal symptoms. [7] This design has demonstrated mixed success. While many users are heavily discouraged by the unpleasant results, many report little to no side effects when injecting buprenorphine/naloxone coformulations. [8]

  • Buprenorphine is the target compound for the BUP One Step Buprenorphine Drug Test, detected at a cutoff level of 10 ng/mL. Buprenorphine is prescribed for treating pain and for treating opioid dependence, available in monoproduct form and in combination with naloxone to discourage misuse by injection. Buprenorphine monoproducts indicated for treating pain are dispensed: in buccal film strip form under the brand Belbuca[9] in transdermal patch form under the brand Butrans; and in injectable form under generic labels and the brand Buprenex. Buprenorphine monoproducts indicated for treating opioid dependence are dispensed: in sublingual tablet form under generic labels; and in subdermal implant rod (stick) form under the brand Probuphine[10] Buprenorphine/naloxone coformulations are indicated for treating opioid dependence and are dispensed: in sublingual/buccal film strip form under the brand names Suboxone and Bunavail[7] and in sublingual tablet form under generic labels and the brand Zubsolv. Following a buprenorphine dose, approximately 11% is excreted in the urine as norbuprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide (NB3G), 9.4% as buprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide (B3G), 2.7% as free norbuprenorphine, and 1% as free buprenorphine. [7]

  • Buprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide (B3G) cross-reacts with this test at 15 ng/mL and Norbuprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide (NB3G) cross-reacts with this test at 200 ng/mL. B3G and NB3G are buprenorphine's major urinary metabolites, with approximately 9.4% and 11% of a buprenorphine dose excreted in the urine as B3G and NB3G, respectively. [7]

  • Norbuprenorphine cross-reacts with this test at 20 ng/mL. Norbuprenorphine is a urinary metabolite of buprenorphine, with approximately 2.7% of a buprenorphine dose excreted in the urine as norbuprenorphine. [7]

Specificity - BUP Drug Test Panel

The following compounds are detected positive in urine by the BUP One Step Buprenorphine Drug Test at 5 minutes. Cutoff represents the concentration of each compound required to yield a positive reading, expressed in nanograms of compound per milliliter of urine (ng/mL). A lower cutoff indicates a greater ability to detect the compound.

Compound Description / Synonyms / Brand Names / Common Names Cutoff
(ng/mL)
Buprenorphine Buprenorphin, Buprenorfina / Belbuca, Bunavail, Buprenex, Butrans, Probuphine, Suboxone, Zubsolv / Subs 10
Buprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide Buprenorphine metabolite / B3G, Buprenorphine glucuronide, Buprenorphine 3-beta-D-glucuronide, Buprenorphine 3-β-D-glucuronide 15
Norbuprenorphine Buprenorphine metabolite 20
Norbuprenorphine 3-B-D-glucuronide Buprenorphine metabolite / NB3G, Norbuprenorphine glucuronide, Norbuprenorphine 3-beta-D-glucuronide, Norbuprenorphine 3-β-D-glucuronide 200