- Deoxyephedrine, Desoxyephedrine, Dextromethamphetamine
- Drug Class:
- Anorectic, CNS Stimulant
- Brand Names:
- Street Names:
- Chalk, Crank, Crystal, Crystal Meth, Glass, Ice, Meth, Quartz, Speed
- Drug Testing:
- mAMP One Step Methamphetamine Drug Test
Methamphetamine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that dramatically affects the central nervous system. The drug was developed early in the 20th century from its parent drug, amphetamine, and was used originally in nasal decongestants and bronchial inhalers. Methamphetamine's chemical structure is similar to that of amphetamine, but it has more pronounced effects on the central nervous system and has a higher potential for misuse and addiction. Like amphetamine, it causes increased activity, decreased appetite, and a general sense of well-being. The effects of methamphetamine can last for 6 to 8 hours. After the initial "rush", there is typically a state of high agitation that in some individuals can lead to violent behavior. Some users repeatedly take the drug over several days in order to maintain the euphoria. These binges often continue even when agitation and hallucinations replace the feelings of exhilaration.
Methamphetamine is found in both prescription form and in illicitly manufactured forms. Prescription methamphetamine is used sparingly in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obesity. It is usually found in the form of tablets or capsules, in a variety of shapes and colors. This form has a high potential for misuse. But it's uncommon, as prescriptions are limited. The majority of methamphetamine misuse is associated with the illicit powdered and crystal forms. The powdered form is commonly referred to as crank. This form is found in varied colors, but is normally a white, crystalline powder that is sniffed. It is also commonly converted to a liquid form and injected. The crystal form, known as ice, glass, crystal, or quartz, has the appearance of shaved glass. This form is typically smoked. Both forms of methamphetamine are produced in clandestine laboratories with relatively inexpensive over-the-counter ingredients. This accounts for their widespread misuse in rural areas as well as in urban areas.
Under normal conditions in the 24-hour urine, up to 43% of a methamphetamine dose is excreted as unchanged methamphetamine, 15% as p-hydroxymethamphetamine, 4% to 7% as amphetamine, and the remainder as minor amounts of the same metabolites found after amphetamine use. These figures can vary significantly as a result of differences in urine pH. Methamphetamine concentrations as high as 333,000 ng/mL have been reported in the urine of methamphetamine misusers.