Blow; Bumps (Single Doses); Coke; Flake; Lines (Single Doses); Nose Candy; Powder; Rock; Shale; Snow; Toot; White
Cocaine is a potent, naturally occurring central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It is derived from the leaves of the coca plant, found primarily in various regions of South America. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive drug of abuse. Once having tried cocaine, the typical user cannot predict or control the extent to which he or she will continue to use the drug. The major routes of administration are sniffing, injecting, and smoking (including free-base and crack cocaine). Powdered cocaine is typically sniffed through the nose, where it is absorbed into the bloodstream through the nasal tissues. For this purpose, users typically roll a dollar bill into the form of a straw or cut a plastic straw into small segments. A razor blade and small mirror might be used to chop the drug into single doses known as "lines". (See picture above.) When injected, the drug is released directly into the bloodstream. Smoking involves inhaling cocaine vapor or smoke into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream is as rapid as by injection.
In the 24-hour urine, approximately 35% to 54% of a cocaine dose is excreted as benzoylecgonine, 32% to 49% as ecgonine methyl ester, 1% to 9% as unchanged cocaine, and an unquantified amount as ecgonine. Cocaine's primary urinary metabolite, benzoylecgonine, is the target compound for most types of cocaine urine screen tests.
"Crack" is the street name given to cocaine that has been processed from street cocaine to a free base for smoking. Crack cocaine is processed with ammonia or sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and water and heated to remove the hydrochloride, thus producing a form of cocaine that can be smoked. The term "crack" refers to the crackling sound heard when the mixture is smoked (heated), presumably from the sodium bicarbonate. Smoking allows extremely high doses of cocaine to reach the brain very quickly and brings an intense and immediate high. It appears that compulsive cocaine use may develop even more rapidly if the substance is smoked rather than sniffed.
See Cocaine above.
Baselt, Randall C., and Robert H. Cravey. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc., 1989.
Drug Photos from the IPRC Website. Indiana Prevention Resource Center. 07 Sept. 2001 <http://www.drugs.indiana.edu/prevention/iprcpics.html>.
NIDA Infofax 13546 - Crack and Cocaine. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 07 Sept. 2001 <http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/cocaine.html>.
South Coast Drug Information - Image Gallery. 07 Sept. 2001 <http://telcom.coos.k12.or.us/drugs/images.htm>.